The Rx Consultant 

Diabetes Update

This CE activity was originally published in The Rx Consultant.  If you received credit for it previously, you cannot receive credit for it again.
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in U.S. adults nearly doubled between 1995 and 2010, increasing from 4.5% to 8.2%. While researchers note that this dramatic increase is partly accounted for by people living longer with diabetes, the high prevalence is a significant public health issue. An estimated 11% of adults aged 20 years or older have diabetes. Among those aged 65 years or older, the prevalence is much higher – an estimated 27%. Perhaps most alarming is the rise among U.S. adolescents: the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in the 12 - 19 year age group increased from 9% in 1999 to 23% in 2008. A boom in diabetes research over the last decade has generated new insights and considerations in diabetes management.

The number of available medications with different mechanisms of action, while welcome, has complicated treatment choices. And more medications are sure to follow – a 2012 pharmaceutical manufacturer report listed 221 drugs in the pipeline for diabetes and diabetes-related conditions. This issue will discuss recent developments in diabetes, including significant changes in adult practice guidelines, the establishment of pediatric guidelines, and medication updates: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for the management of diabetic kidney disease, a new DPP-4 inhibitor (alogliptin), a first-in-class sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor (canagliflozin [Invokana™]), and an investigational, ultra-long-acting insulin.
This CE activity is a monograph (PDF file).



CE Hours


CE Units


Activity Type


Target Audience(s)

Pharmacists, Nurse Practitioners, Clinical Nurse Specialists, and Registered Nurses


This CE activity was developed by The Rx Consultant, a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

CE activities for Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians:
This continuing education (CE) activity meets the requirements of all state boards of pharmacy for approved continuing education hours.  CE credit is automatically reported to CPE Monitor.
CE activities for Nurse Practitioners and Clinical Nurse Specialists: 
    This continuing education activity meets the requirements of:
        The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) for formally approved continuing education (CE) hours, and CE hours of pharmacotherapeutics.
        The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners Certification Program (AANPCP) for acceptable, accredited CE.
    This is a pharmacotherapeutics/pharmacology CE activity.
  • The ANCC requires all advanced practice nursing certificants (CNSs and NPs) to complete 25 CE hours of pharmacotherapeutics as a portion of the required 75 continuing education hours.
  • Pharmacology CE is recommended by the AANPCP and will be required for Certificants renewing certification starting January 2017.  
  • Most State Boards of Nursing require a minimum number of pharmacy contact hours to renew an advanced practice license.
Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education
Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Requirements for CE Credit

CE No Longer Valid
To receive CE credit, the participant must read the monograph in its entirety, complete the online post-test and receive a score of 70% or greater, and complete the online evaluation.
Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians -
Be sure your profile has been updated with your NAPB e-profile # and birth date information BEFORE completing the online evaluation, or your credits cannot be reported to CPE Monitor.
Continuing pharmacy education credit is automatically reported to CPE Monitor once the post-test & evaluation are successfully completed.




  • Outline the current American Diabetes Association recommendations for blood pressure goals and self-monitoring of blood glucose. Discuss current recommendations for patient-centered glycemic goals and therapy selection in type 2 diabetes.
  • Review the National Kidney Foundation’s current guidelines on ACE inhibitor and ARB use in diabetic kidney disease.
  • Discuss the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and the recommended treatment approach.
  • Identify the differences between alogliptin and other FDA approved DPP-4 inhibitors. Discuss the potential benefits and adverse effects of canagliflozin.


Pamela Mausner, MD

Brief Bio : Pamela Mausner, MD; Medical Writer/Editor and Healthcare Advocate; and Associate Editor, The Rx Consultant.
Disclosure : Dr.Mausner reports no financial relationship with the manufacturer(s) or provider(s) of any commercial product(s) or service(s) that appear in this issue.

Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Brief Bio : Tracy Farnen, PharmD; Managing Editor, The Rx Consultant.
Disclosure : Dr. Farnen reports no financial relationship with the manufacturer(s) or provider(s) of any commercial product(s) or service(s) that appear in this issue.

Activity Number


Release Date: Apr 18, 2013
Credit Expiration Date: Apr 18, 2016

CE Hours