In order to meet the Healthy People 2020 targets, all healthcare providers should remain up-to-date on vaccine recommendations and play an active role in immunizations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update their recommendations for routine immunizations annually, while vaccine-specific recommendations are typically updated every 3-5 years (except influenza, which is updated yearly). Additionally, the CDC publishes the General Recommendations on Immunization and the Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (otherwise known as “The Pink Book”), which are considered core references for vaccine providers. The updated ACIP-recommended immunization schedule for adults was published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in February 2014; the schedules for children, adolescents, and adults are available online.
Vaccines for adults are recommended on the basis of age, medical conditions, lifestyle, occupation, and travel. This review will focus on specific recommendations and considerations for adults 19 years of age and older who have altered immunocompetence, common chronic medical conditions, and selected health characteristics or concerns. Further information for these and other special groups can be found in the ACIP recommendations. (See Tables 1-3.)
- Pharmacists, Nurse Practitioners, Clinical Nurse Specialists, and Registered Nurses
CE activities for Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians:
This continuing education (CE) activity meets the requirements of all state boards of pharmacy for approved continuing education hours. CE credit is automatically reported to CPE Monitor.
The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) for formally approved continuing education (CE) hours, and CE hours of pharmacotherapeutics.
The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners Certification Program (AANPCP) for acceptable, accredited CE.
- The ANCC requires all advanced practice nursing certificants (CNSs and NPs) to complete 25 CE hours of pharmacotherapeutics as a portion of the required 75 continuing education hours.
- Pharmacology CE is recommended by the AANPCP and will be required for Certificants renewing certification starting January 2017.
- Most State Boards of Nursing require a minimum number of pharmacy contact hours to renew an advanced practice license.
Requirements for CE Credit
- State the age, indications and usual dosing regimens for routine adult vaccinations, including influenza vaccine, pneumococcal vaccines, Tdap/Td, and at least 2 others.
- Discuss specific vaccine indications and contraindications for: - patients with immune competence-altering conditions including HIV infection and asplenia; - patients with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or chronic lung, liver, or kidney disease; - pregnant women; and - men who have sex with men.
- Outline the recommendations for influenza vaccination in patients with egg allergy. Name 3 other vaccine components that can cause allergic reactions, and at least 1 vaccine that contains each respective component.
Hovik Mekhjian , PharmD
Brief Bio : Hovik Mekhjian, PharmD, Post-Graduate year 1 Pharmacy Practice Resident in Community Pharmacy , USC School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, CA.
Disclosure : Dr. Mekhjian reports no financial or personal relationship with any commercial interest producing, marketing, reselling, or distributing a product or service that appears in this issue.
Jeff Goad , PharmD, MPH
Brief Bio : Jeff Goad, PharmD., MPH, Associate Professor and Vice Chair, Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics Policy, USC School of Pharmacy.
Disclosure : Jeff Goad reports no financial or personal relationship with any commercial interest producing, marketing, reselling, or distributing a product or service that appears in this issue. Dr. Goad reports being on the speakers bureau for Merck & Co., Inc.
Richard Dang , PharmD
Brief Bio : Richard Dang, PharmD, Post-Graduate year 1 Pharmacy Practice Resident in Community Pharmacy , USC School of Pharmacy,
Disclosure : Dr. Dang report no financial or personal relationship with any commercial interest producing, marketing, reselling, or distributing a product or service that appears in this issue.